ssociation between dairy products and cardiovascular diseases is a well-known topic across many nations all over the world. Dairy products have been basic food for many centuries in the Western world and have a very important meaning in the lives of the Westerners. It would be safe to assume that dairy products have an enormous impact on the lives of Westerners. On the contrary, rice and beans have been basic foods for many centuries in the Eastern world and dairy products have had a minor importance. As a good example, Japanese people enjoy longevity most in the world but consume far less dairy products than the Westerners do. Therefore the authors try to make clear the connection between ecological evidence and clinical evidence. We would like to conclude:
In a population approach, consider and respect the dietary habits and traditions of inhabitants, and it is not safe to force a sudden change for the intake of dairy products.
In a high-risk approach, consider the probability that dairy products can lead to weight gain, and dairy products are not recommended for some obese individuals. Comparing with other alternative foods, dietary interventions should be individualized.