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The effect of a partner’s pupil size on (dis)honest behavior

Being observed by others fosters honest behavior. In this study, we examine a very subtle eye signal that may affect participants’ tendency to behave honestly: observed pupil size. For this, we use an experimental task that is known to evoke dishonest behavior. Specifically, participants made private predictions for a coin toss and earned a bonus by reporting correct predictions. Before ...

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Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: A focus on the Okinawan diet

  The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and ...

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The longevity gene INDY (I’m Not Dead Yet) in metabolic control

The regulation of metabolic processes by the Indy (I′m Not Dead Yet) (SLC13A5/NaCT) gene was revealed through studies in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Reducing the expression of Indy in these species extended their life span by a mechanism resembling caloric restriction, without reducing food intake. In D. melanogaster, mutating the Indy gene reduced body fat content, insulin-like proteins and ...

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A Tablet for Healthy Ageing

the Objective was to test the efficacy of a tablet computer training intervention to improve cognitive abilities of older adults. Design was Prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting was Community-based aging intervention study, Edinburgh, UK. Participants comprised Forty-eight healthy older adults aged 65 to 76 years were recruited at baseline with no or minimal tablet experience; 43 completed follow-up testing. Twenty-two ...

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Chronopatho physiological implications of orexin in sleep disturbances and lifestyle-related disorders

Sleep, a mysterious behavior, has recently been recognized as a crucial factor for health and longevity. The daily sleep/wake cycle provides the basis of biorhythms controlling whole-body homeostasis and homeodynamics; therefore, disruption of sleep causes several physical and psychological disorders, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanism linking sleep disturbances and sleep-related disorders ...

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Emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems: The role of defensiveness

Despite evidence that individual differences in defensiveness (typically measured with social desirability scales) may affect associations among self-report measures, little is known about the impact of defensiveness in the well-established relations between self-report emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems. In Study 1 (community sample; N = 274), we found evidence that defensiveness significantly explained a portion of the shared variance between ...

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Aging and Cognition

  The effects of aging on cognition are not uniform. Rather, certain aspects of attention and memory are adversely affected by aging, whereas other cognitive domains are relatively preserved, and others even show positive age-related changes. Several overlapping cognitive theories have been advanced to explain these aging-related patterns, but none has prevailed yet. Cognitive neuroscience studies have focused on structural ...

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Sleep Deprivation Diminishes Attentional Control Effectiveness and Impairs Flexible Adaptation to Changing Conditions

Insufficient sleep is a global public health problem resulting in catastrophic accidents, increased mortality, and hundreds of billions of dollars in lost productivity. Yet the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on decision making and performance is often underestimated by fatigued individuals and is only beginning to be understood by scientists. The deleterious impact of SD is frequently attributed to lapses ...

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Herbal Acupuncture for the Treatment of Obesity

Obesity is the state of excessive body fat accumulation and is mainly caused by consuming more calories than are burned through physical activity. Herbal acupuncture (HA), also known as #pharmacopuncture, has been increasingly used in clinics of Korean medical to alleviate obesity. This review analyzed four clinical studies and 16 animal studies on the effectiveness of HA as a treatment ...

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The empirical status of the third-wave behaviour therapies for the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review

This #systematic #review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the empirical status of these therapies. Twenty-seven studies met full inclusion criteria. Only 13 randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified, most on binge eating disorder (BED). Pooled within- (pre-post change) and between-groups effect sizes were calculated for the meta-analysis. Large pre-post symptom improvements were observed for all third-wave treatments, including #dialectical behaviour ...

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